ISSN(Print): 2708-2105 - ISSN(Online): 2709-9458 - ISSN-L: 2708-2105
 

Dramas and their perception: A Social Awareness of Drama's Structures and their Representation

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Abstract

This research is designed to explore the impact of Pakistani dramas of the private channel on Pakistani women. To witness various effects caused by dramas, detailed research is carried out. To gather and document the perceptions of the female viewers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, a detailed questionnaire was prepared. Through a sample of 300 respondents, data was collected from people of different age groups, educational background and occupational groups. The perceptions of viewers about the various content in dramas showed that private channels provide a lot of content for entertainment, education, comedy, information, serious, horror, emotional and musical content. Overall, it was observed that Geo TV dramas provide the content mentioned more frequently than Hum TV and ARY Digital. The study concludes that there are significant changes taking place in all the mentioned domains. The degree to which private channels display different lifestyles was another important variable of the study that has been discussed for so long, but it was observed from the finding that dramas of private channels promote multiple lifestyles (Western and Indian) on an equal basis.

 

Key Words 

Impact, Pvt Channels, Drama, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lifestyles

 

Introduction

In the past, television watching was a lot different from that of today. The TV was black and white in the past, and the screens were tiny and circular (Frith, 2002). These early T.V. limitations gave it a bland grey look shift that started to emerge with the introduction of remote control in 1955. Image quality began to increase, but not that of programmes that had been much superior in the past. That is why the late 1940s and early 1950s is considered the "Golden Age" of T.V. Live drama anthologies are a living tribute to (Sklar, 2012). It was very different from today's episodic dramas. Each week, it had a different storey line, music and drama cast (Straubhaar and LaRose, 2002).

Television involves different plays, films, musical performances, etc. Many television formats,

such as dramas, songs, game shows or quiz programmes, entertain. In the current scenario, dramas for all age groups are a more effective source of entertainment. Drama contains episodes weekly (Brooks & Marsh, 2009). Comedy dramas are of various kinds and are transmitted on different timetables. Most of them are telecast at prime time (between 8 pm and 11 pm.PST at the peak viewing hours when most people watch television (Bigsby, 2013). Various outlets and networks telecast various services. Different networks as well as original programming telecast syndicated programmes. CNN fox news in the limelight of the global HBO media (Lieberman & Esgate, 2013).

This medium is an instrument or medium that brings about a variety of social changes. To quantify our experience and attribute these experiences to others is a metric. The highest number of individuals using this ability to waste their free time (Turkle, 2005). This experience is optimistic in the sense that it pulsates with life and shows, in its richest colour, the varied panorama of life. It is good in this way, but it gets destructive and begins to play havoc in life if it is just a source of addiction only to kill time, and it cuts us off from community, culture, social and collective life. Just to spare time to watch television, we start sacrificing other required involvement. The entertainment segment of Pakistani media is very popular and strong. Although there is a lack of imagination or self-creativity in this genre, new ideas are missing. It is based on an entertainment model from India and the West. Even Western and Indian copies of dresses and shoes are (Nawaz, 2006).

Drama is the creator's name Viewers watch dramas as they move through time or avoid boredom or life's worries. "Drama is the holistic way people are taught and affected" (Gans, 2008). In the world of television, the drama has brought new trends and styles that are unprecedented. There has never been such access to drama for such a large number of people, according to Raymond Williams. Drama, whether in its plays, series or serials, has had many meaningful stories to tell and has done so in its own special way to great effect. Any time there's an enemy of entertainment, everybody. As well as his pet hates, everybody has his own favourites (Krasner, 2016).

Various impacts on the viewer of the drama are shown. Drama brings us various ways to think and different patterns to pursue. The effects and presence of the drama are felt anywhere and everywhere. Its effects and influences are present in the workplaces of educational institutions. People have started to accept these patterns (Freshwater, 2009) It is teenage agers' mate, middleagers' partner to the elderly, as well as 'third parent' to the children. It is a good guide for women about the problems of everyday life as well as their relationship with other members. It is said, "Media is the mirror of society (Rehm, 2011)." But it is debatable if this task is being adequately served by the media today or not. Suppose it's a real mirror of our culture or not. During prime time, three key entertainment channels (Geo TV, ARY Digital and Hum T.V.) get the highest audience share. Not only in Pakistan, but throughout the world amongst the people who speak and understand Urdu, these dramas are popular.

 

Literature

The Health Styles findings suggest that prime time T.V. dramas and plays provide reliable health

education and knowledge, timely information about diseases, as shown by the Health Styles performance. These health shows and audiences who watch two or more times a week profit of around 43 percent of about (108 million) U.S. people. Such services, when they are broadcast, increase awareness among audiences about both disease prevention and treatment. There are millions of families benefiting in this way. But if any show, on the other hand, does not provide enough information or the millions of people suffer from inaccurate and negative information (Sartorius & Schulze, 2005).

Gorton (2008) believes that watching soap operas makes women used to disruption and fragmentation. As Living Stone puts it:' they make it simple through narrative redundancy and repetition, they make it pleasurable through dramatic suspense and delayed gratification'. In understanding T.V., however, it is easy to oversimplify gender differences. All the complicating factors are social status, race, age and education, and there are major gender disparities.

In her study "Effects of satellite channels (Zee TV) on Lahore middle class," Fatima (2000) concluded that Zee TV is gaining popularity among the middle class over PTV and other channels and has a profound shift in the attitude and actions of the middle class. In her thesis, she also states that it is very difficult to bring about a swift and abrupt social change, but constant and steady propaganda can do this and satellite channels do the same. Similarly Ali  (2001) conducted a study titled "Impact of satellite T.V. channels on people living in Lahore" on the the same topic. He concentrated his research on the development of "International Culture." Around 800 students from the Department of Social Sciences at the University of Punjab and other universities were included in his study. He concluded that drama channel surfing had become the audience's favourite sport. People's lives are deeply influenced by these satellite networks. Even the advertisements seen on these networks are a good means of impressing and manipulating individuals. Not only are advertisements presented by satellite television channels the backbone of marketing, but they have become sources of audience entertainment. That's why, without ads, no satellite television channel will survive.

In rural Sindh, Sheikh (2007) conducted research on the impact of satellite television channels. The extent of satellite television channels, people's interaction with other mass media, their favourite channels, shows, and their viewing time were calculated in this research. He says that people's approach to modern channels has shifted profoundly in thought, life patterns, social practises, the celebration of festivals and fairs, family system, tribal system, rituals, beliefs, community, music system and house decoration, and awareness of languages other than the mother tongue. The study concludes that these channels carry a shift in every parameter except the approach to education.

In his research on the impact or effect of Star Plus dramas on people's cultural values and practices, Shahbaz (2004) concludes that the socio-cultural values of Pakistani youth are influenced and affected by international channels. The beliefs, customs, vocabulary, social conduct, lifestyle and even thought of individuals with the influence of these dramas are also influenced by these drama outlets. With the influence of these dramas, there is a lively and profound generation gap. People have become materialistic and money-driven through these dramas. As well as traditionalist thinkers, people are influenced by modernists. Star plus incorporates a style of Eastern and Western culture and establishes a 'Universal Culture' Liberalism and modernism are under the influence of Pakistani culture. Pakistani youth are both more demanding and idealistic and desirous now. These Star Plus dramas have regular and intense negative effects on the social and cultural norms and values of Pakistani youth.
Malik (2003) based his research on "the impact on the residents of Multan of cable television transmission." It was concluded that there is a strong effect on audiences who spend time watching cable television broadcasting, their schedule and activities. People's social contact has become minimal. Study results show that the Alien culture is becoming stronger and stronger due to cable television transmission, particularly the Indian culture. In addition, the modern way of life is encouraged by these cable transmissions.

Research on "Cultural Invasion: An analysis of PTV's entertainment programmes and their effects on youth" was conducted by khan et al., (2014) and says that even PTV's broadcasts are highly affected by the characteristics of international culture. It has been found that these T.V services impact viewers with different media exposure and with different educational mediums in various ways. Similarly, Linter (2001) reported that a new international language (Lingua franca) is being created to be known as Hinglish (a mixture of English and Hindi languages) with the strong influence of these cable and satellite channels, representing the daily speech of many educated people on the subcontinent.

Hagiwara et at (1999) concluded that if these satellite services are at par with the beliefs, customs and styles of local nations receiving them. These programmes also concluded that the cultural traditions of local countries are highly affected by these global T.V. networks. No one is immune from the influence of television regardless of age, colour, sex and status etc. in this age of entertainment. In any culture, though, the media plays an important role, asking how much this influence is. But its results take different forms. The media affects our dressing, dining, working and even buying habits (Mcquail, 1987).

Many studies have shown that these services affect women's eating habits and they suffer from nervous disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa (Wertheim, Paxton, Schutz & Muir, 1997 ; Pratt, Phillips, Greydanus & Patel; 2003 & Holstrom, 2004). Harrison and Cantor thought that the prevalence of these eating disorders was based on women's expectations to be thin and smart in a historical context (1997 , pp. 40-41). Times in which women were smaller in the U.S. media (e.g. the 20s and 80s) mirrored the periods in which the most eating disorders occurred. These results indicate that the media greatly affects individuals and the media plays an important part in the prevalence of eating disorders. Likewise, the media is heavily criticised for representing and supporting the values of women (Hargreaves, 2003). According to Holstrom (2004), a study was performed to see whether there is really a connection between media usage and body dissatisfaction. Three research lines indicate that speculation about such a relationship could be true

Research Questions

In the light of the literature reviewed and the established research gap, following are the research questions for this research.

1.       What are the structural patterns of the dramas of private TV channels?

2.       What is their impact on female audiences?

3.       What are the female assessments about the selected private television channels and their dramas?

 

Theoretical Framework

As viewers watch dramas to get new ideas about dresses & hairstyles, to take the understanding of the world outside the home and to take new ideas for their home decoration, this hypothesis is linked to the present study or it can also be said that the dramas fulfil their affective needs, social integrative needs & needs for stress release. An emphasis change from message maker to message receiver is Uses and Gratification Theory. This approach is more concerned with the receiver's use of distinct media material. They also learn many new things to improve their contacts with their family and friends. Dramas also help them to escape the everyday routine and tensions. Five definitions of social and psychological media functions are established by this theory, and this research supports these functions and shows that people use media to fulfil their needs. Individuals prefer individual competing programme options according to their needs (Shoemaker & Reese, 2013). In this research, it is attempted to find out how different situations and different atmospheres are represented by the media. Then respondents were asked how, in the same circumstances they behave. Basically, the main aim of this was to find out which factors influence people in their everyday routine, either they learn from the media, or they learn it through social interaction as a researcher researching the impact of drama watching on women, and there are patterns implemented by these dramas, which serve as an external environment where everyone seems to follow the trends posed by the dramas (Katz et al., 19 3). Both audiences viewing the same channels select the idea according to their own reference structure that varies according to the personal factors of individuals that alter their actions as well. Some viewers, for instance, belong to the family, solely observing their rituals. Such viewers may not adopt the patterns because they see rather welcome such patterns with change according to current culture” (Katz et al., 19 4).

 

Methodology

In this study, the researcher has selected survey research design for data collection.  A survey is the method of data collection in which one asks the questions systematically from selected respondents (Wimmer, 2006). This study is a plane to explore the perceptions of viewers about private channels dramas. Private TV channels are attracting public magnetically. It is also the purpose of the study to find out that whether uses and gratification model is assimilated according to with nature of the study, survey methodology is contemplating to be an apt procedure for analyzing effects and social changes introduced by the three private TV channels”.  In this study, the universe is the female viewers of private channels’ dramas from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It was further classified as female students, working women and Housewives, who watch dramas on Geo TV, Hum T.V. and ARY Digital. The unit of analysis in the present study is females of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The population was divided into demographic groups before sampling, for example, education. “In the present study, this procedure generated population subgroups to abide by the requirement of this study. This approach adequately organized the population into homogeneous subsets and selected various elements from each. For data collection purpose, the target of three hundred respondents was selected. Therefore, a total of three hundred respondents equally from Rawalpindi and Islamabad and also equally from three occupations.”

 

Findings

This study is a planned effort to analyze the effects of viewing dramas of private channels on females. Data is collected from a different age, education, occupation groups from two different

Graph 1: shows watching habits of dramas of female regarding private channels. Overall findings of Geo TV show that the majority of females watch Geo TV dramas more frequently (16%) as compared to Hum T.V. (15%) and ARY TV (14%).

Graph 1: Viewers’ Watching Habits of Private Channels

 

In term of age, results depict that viewers who are 31years or above watch Geo TV dramas more frequently (19%) as compared viewers who are up to 20 years (18%) followed by 21-30 (16%) viewers. NO significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV among age groups. Further results show that viewers who are metric watch Geo TV dramas frequently (15%) than viewers who are masters, intermediate and followed by bachelors. NO significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV in term of the education group. Similarly, in term of Occupation results represented that housewives watch Geo TV drams more frequently (7%) than students (6%) followed by working women (4%). However, no significant difference is observed in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV across occupation. Similarly, results represented that females of Rawalpindi watch Geo TV more frequently (7%) as compared to Islamabad (6%), but no significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV among females of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The same was testified through chi-square test.

Graphic 2 shows watching habits of dramas of female regarding private channels. Overall findings of Geo TV show that the majority of females watch Geo TV dramas more frequently

Graphic 2: Viewers’ Watching Habits of Dramas of Selected Channels

In term of age, results depict that viewers who are 31years or above watch Geo TV dramas more frequently (20%) as compared viewers who are up to 20 years (18%) followed by 21-30 (15%) viewers. NO significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV among age groups. Further results show that viewers who are metric watch Geo TV dramas frequently (14%) than viewers who are masters, intermediate and followed by bachelors. NO significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV in term of the education group. Similarly, in term of Occupation results represented that housewives watch Geo TV drams more frequently (12%) than students (8%) followed by working women (8%). However, no significant difference is observed in watching habits of Hum T.V. and ARY TV across occupation. Similarly, results represented that females of Rawalpindi watch Geo TV more frequently (7%) as compared to Islamabad (6%), but no significant difference is found in watching habits of Hum

A significant difference is observed in interest taking of viewers in Geo TV and ARY TV dramas in viewers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. To document variations ANOVA test was used on occupational groups.

Table 1. ANOVA on Occupation Groups

Interest in Dramas

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Geo TV

Between Groups

09.350

2

8.128

2. 0

.011

Within Groups

435.510

29

1. 20

 

 

Total

483.1 1

299

 

 

 

Hum T.V.

Between Groups

13.14

2

6.483

3.183

.015

Within Groups

343.020

29

1. 35

 

 

Total

560.19

299

 

 

 

ARY Digital

Between Groups

14.06

2

5.020

4.25

.059

Within Groups

5 4.6 4

29

1.98

 

 

Total

5 5. 56

299

 

 

 

 

TV and ARY TV among females of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The same was testified through chi-square test.

The chi-Square test shows significant variation in watching habits of selected private channels’ dramas across different groups and response categories.

 

Table 2. Chi-square Test (Watching Private Channels Dramas)

 

Geo TV

HUM TV

ARY Digital

Chi-Square

22.855a

02.123a

09.200a

df

4

4

4

Asymp. Sig.

.004*

.090

.055

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected frequencies less than 5. The minimum expected cell frequency is 60.0.

*Chi-square is significant if P=< .05

 

Correlation test shows significant relation between watching frequency and idea taken for home decoration by female viewers

 

Table 3. Correlations between Frequency of Watching and Ideas Taken for

Selected Items

 

Bedroom

Drawing room

T.V. lounge

Kitchen

Geo TV

Correlation Coefficient

.140

.2 0

.233

.20

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000*

.005

.000

.000

Hum TV

Correlation Coefficient

.2 8

.224

.189

.285

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.002

.000

ARY Digital

Correlation Coefficient

.244

.131

.2 5

.211

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.004

.000

.000

 

N

300

300

300

300

* T test is significant if P=< .05

Table 4. Promotions of Life Styles

Geo TV

Hum TV

ARY TV

Western Much

4

43

42

Somewhat

48

36

32

Not at all

05

21

26

Indian Much

6

4

45

Somewhat

16

2

38

Not at all

1

26

1

 

        Table 1.4 illustrates to what extent private channels promoting different lifestyles. Exclusively it was observed from the finding that private channels dramas promoting all selected life styles more frequently than somewhat or not at all. Cross comparison shows all selected channels dramas are equally promoting all lifestyles as the slight difference is observed among all private channel’s dramas.

 

Conclusion

This research was designed to explore the impacts on women of private channel dramas. To witness all sorts of effects caused by dramas, detailed literature was carried out. To gather and document the perceptions of the female viewers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, a detailed questionnaire was prepared. Through a sample of 300 respondents, data was collected from different ages, education, occupation groups. The perceptions of viewers about the extent of various content in dramas showed that private channels provide a lot of content for entertainment, education, comedy, information, serious, horror, emotional and musical content.  Overall, it was noted that Geo TV dramas provide the content mentioned more frequently than Hum TV and ARY Digital. Williams (2011) also endorsed this because he argued that television had pioneered a number of new forms of drama. Similarly finding showed that Story, Music, Cast and set design used in the dramas of selected channels attracts significantly according to viewers. The anthologies had a different storyline and cast of characters each week and often deal with the disturbing subject matter. This was strongly endorsed by the Straubhaar and LaRose, 2002) "today's episodic drama series." Cross comparisons show that Geo TV dramas attract more in term of Story, Music, Cast and set design than Hum T.V. dramas followed by ARY TV dramas. This helps to approve another study hypothesis, "Geo TV dramas are more likely to attract more than Hum T.V. and ARY Digital."

Analysis of the comparison of the perceived perception of the viewers regarding the gender interaction shown by the dramas and most of the viewers believe that dramas significantly preset the gender interaction atmosphere. Cross comparison shows that Geo TV dramas present significantly more frequently male and female interactions in all selected atmospheres, according to viewers. Investigation of the association of the viewers perceived perception regarding the gender interaction shown by the dramas and majority of the viewers are of the view that dramas significantly believe that private channels dramas use modern dress more frequently than traditional dresses. The level of satellite television, people's access to other mass media, their favourite channels, programmes, and their viewing time were determined in this study. It is also explored to bring about changes in food, cooking practises, clothing, home decoration and architecture, social customs, festival celebration, musical traditions, and educational approach, family system, clan and tribal system, and understanding of language other than the mother tongue. The study concludes that changes in all the parameters are taking place. The degree to which private channels promote different lifestyles was another important variable of the study that has been discussed for so long, but it was observed from the finding that dramas of private channels promote all lifestyles equally (Western and Indian).


 


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