ISSN(Print): 2708-2105 - ISSN(Online): 2709-9458 - ISSN-L: 2708-2105
 

Influence of Facebook on Educational, Political and Cultural life of Students: A Case Study of University of Swat

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Abstract

This study was conducted to analyze the influence and exposure of university students on Facebook. The researcher conducted to examine the educational, political, cultural and fashion influence of Facebook on university students. A quantitative methodology was used by the researcher, and survey technique was used for the collection of data. A questionnaire was designed to contained close-ended questions to collect data randomly from the students of the University of Swat. The data was analyzed through the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version.19) to ensure impartiality in the results of the study. The results revealed that most of the students are using Facebook. The study also disclosed that students in the university of Swat are using Facebook for educational purposes. The researcher found that Most of the students also use Facebook for fashion and cultural information. The study proved that most of the students using Facebook for online educational information as compare to political information. It is also found that Students exposed to fashion information than cultural information through Facebook.

 

Key Words

Facebook, Influence, Education, Political Information, Culture, Fashion,                                      University of Swat  

Introduction                                   

This study has been conducted to analyze the Facebook influence on University Students. As nowadays the young generation is using Facebook and other social media for information, education, fashion and politics etc. all over the globe, so for that the researcher conducted this study to search out the influence of Facebook on the daily lives of the university students.

Murat Kayri and OzlemÇakır (2014) said that Facebook is a tool of communication because it is the latest technology. At recent time communication is increasing with the number of using social networks. Many students are using social networks and get benefits from Facebook, Myspace, YouTube, Bebo, Twitter, and WhatsApp. Students make friends and present themselves through Facebook. Nowadays, many Students upload their photos, videos and pictures and become participants of the groups on Facebook.

The researcher further said that students of Harvard University started Facebook in 2004 only for student’s interaction. Far along, it gradually spread to other universities; it comes to be an open domain. In Turkey, Facebook is the second largest social network, and it is found that Facebook is mostly used for friendship, upload videos, pictures, music and share idea, games, political information. It is also found that such social networks are used for education purposes.

 

Facebook in Pakistan

Nisar. S. (2013) Said that Facebook users in Pakistan were between 10.6-11.8 million of which 3.0-3.4 million are female and 7.4-8.2 million are males. Single users are 2.3-2.5 million, 1.7-1.8 million are men and 0.7-0.78 million are women. Engaged and married users of Facebook are 1.0-1.2 million.

 Facebook mostly used by youth half of them are between the ages of 18-24.   Furthermore, local Facebook users are university graduates are 2.9-3.2 million, of which boys are 2.1-2.3 million, and girls are 0.78-0.86 million.

 

University Student’s Usage of Facebook

Mazer, Murphy & Simonds (2007) exposed in their study that Facebook is a popular social network among University Students and also used for academic purposes. It motivates students to learn and make like a classroom environment.

Ellison, Steinfield& Lampe (2007) stated that Facebook makes an online platform and Students of university can build and maintain the social center with other users. It is most essential for university students to get benefits due to the use of Facebook.

According to Thuseethan, &Kuhanesan (2014a) that Social networking sites and Facebook have become a very integral part of Student’s life. Many schools, colleges and Universities students use the internet and discuss topics which are assigned to them. Students also gather information from Facebook.

 

Significance of the study

The purpose of this study is to find out educational, informational, cultural and fashion influences of Facebook on university students, Like the Facebook changing the opinion of the students regarding the specific information, educational text, cultural and modern fashion all over the world. The researcher conducted this study to check out the educational, informational, and cultural and fashion influence on the students of the University of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Objectives

·         To know how many time students use Facebook.

·         To find out the educational influence of Facebook on students.

·         To find out what type of information student use Facebook.

·         To search out the fashion and cultural influence of Facebook on students. 

 

Hypotheses

1.       Weather students are using more Facebook for educational purposes than political information.

2.       Fashion information is more influential for students than cultural posted information.

3.       Students use Facebook for a long time, so it changes the opinion of the students.

 

Literature Review

Thuseethan, Kuhanesan (2014b) explored in his study that Facebook is an important tool of education for people, and they examined the influence of Facebook on the academic performance of university students. Facebook’s influence on Students could either be positive or negative based on their way of use.  Facebook has also made it difficult for some students to get some positive benefit of it regarding their education.

At the recent time, Facebook damages the future of university students. In Srilanka survey research conducted in different universities to collect data from 250 students. It revealed that Facebook is more often used by university students for Educational Purposes.

Sabeen. J. (2013) investigated that Social networking sites have affected human life as well up to some extent. The use of social networking sites have not only globalized the world into a Village but have also influenced significant aspects of people’s activities. In this research, the researcher examined the use of Facebook and its impact on Student’s Studies in private universities. The researcher assumed that Facebook directly influences the Academic Performance, i.e. their Results, of university students.

In this study, the survey method was used, and data were collected from 275 participants in different private universities of Pakistan. The data being collected disclosed that Facebook’s use actually doesn’t predict university students’ Score and also didn’t show up any particular gender dominance in Facebook’s use.

Sushma Bagavadiallori et al. (June 2014) Said that the internet proves very beneficial for college students. In the United States, more than 90 percent of college students use the internet. Facebook has both positive and negative impact on students learning performance. Internet mostly has a positive impact on students learning performance.

This research explored that the internet does have some strong impact on College students. Students use Facebook, use online media. And also use the internet in the university for learning. Facebook also influence the face-to-face communication skills of students. In the research, the researcher included Internet usage, Facebook usage and online media usage for educational purposes, online media usage for non-educational purposes and students’ interest in the university, academic performance and face-to-face communication. In the end, this Data collection helped to estimate the hypothesis. The result showed that Facebook influence students in the university’s academic performance.

Ahsan ul Haq and Sohail.C (2014) revealed that Facebook is very popular among the University students. For this study, the researcher used questionnaires and collected data from 384 Students. This research showed that 87.5% of Students had got accounts to use Facebook. Male and female spent equal time to use the internet. This research also revealed that male students were more affected compared to females due to involving in some useless activities over Facebook.

Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi, MohdShahizan Othman and shahizan (2014 ) revealed that Facebook is the most important communication tool among students, especially at the higher educational level of Students. People communicate over different Websites and social forums with other people. This study explored the advantages of Facebook. It develops the students' academic performance. The results showed that Students use Facebook positively to interact with friends, teachers and learn a lot of things by discussions.

Murat Kayri&OzlemCakır (2010) said that in this research, it was found that Students use Facebook for educational purposes. In this study, Students were observed to use Facebook platform for education for about three months. After these months, the student’s attitudes were measured towards Facebook use.

Results showed that the attitude of students towards Facebook was different then from now. When the average ideal groups were observed, it revealed that the attitudes of students to educational use of Facebook was acceptable. Thus it was suggested that social networks are an effective platform for learning.

Mike Westling (May 2007) explained in this research that the Facebook administrators created an “Election Pulse” in the mid-term election of 2006, on which they developed profiles of all candidates.

The researcher further said that Facebook provides a way to journalist to cover the campaign and write fresh campaign communication in the view of Collins Facebook give way for campaign communication with followers.

Mary Ann Liebert (2009) conducted a Web survey in which the researcher collected data from the college students of 1,715 to investigate the user’s satisfaction as well as their political and civic participation offline through Facebook. This study disclosed that respondents are using Facebook for entertainment, status, information and relationship. The outcome of the study also revealed that students surf more civic and political participation on Facebook.

Alessandro Aquisti& Ralph Gross (2006) disclosed in their research that membership on social media as Myspace and Facebook had increased nowadays. They said that this type of media is proving a more interactive way for communicators and political integration, but it has security and privacy concerns as well.

In the study, they used a survey technique, while a representative sample method was used for data collection of the Facebook members in the USA academic institutions. The results revealed that individuals use Facebook for political information and interaction.

Chih M&D Park (2013) said that cultural differences could be examined on the internet by self-presentation and by uploaded photos on Facebook. They studied cultural variation on profile photos. Facebook profiles of Students were randomly (2,312) selected East Asia and U.S universities. Tidies revealed that East Asian users of Facebook show their faces compared to U.S Facebook users. It is investigated that U.S users of Facebook go from real-world to cyber and change their styles and behaviors across their cultures.

Kevin Levis et al. l (2008) said that Scholars have long appreciated the communication technologies for developing a network on the base of the internet. In this paper researchers present a new platform and popular social network (Facebook) they further said that race/Nationality and socioeconomic status are characterized by different network behaviors, and students sharing social relationships as well as demographic character tend to share a significant number of cultural preferences. These findings demonstrate the potential of this new network resource and give a beginning point for future analyses.

Sawyer, Rebecca (2011) said that at a recent time, online social media is popular in a globalizing society. People can communicate, exchange messages, share information, and interact with each other with friends, teachers from long distance. And people adopt other cultural values and make a new cultural environment and change their thoughts. Research presented that people tend to use new social media to become assimilated into the other culture during their adaptation and to preserve connections to their home countries.

This study searched the impact of using new social media on the intercultural adaptation process. In-depth interviews were conducted and asked some questions from international students in a U.S university about intercultural adoption. It based on the results of the analysis, directions for future research in this line of research are also discussed.

Park, N., Kee, K. F., Valenzuela, S. (2009) said that this study examines that in U.S Facebook is an important social network site for college students. Facebook changes the thoughts and opinion of the Students. In Taxas data were randomly collected by Web survey (n=2,603)from Students; as a result Students get satisfaction from Facebook and take participation in politics, civic engagement and also Students Facebook use for social trust. This study found that Facebook has a positive impact on students.

Christy M.K. Cheung et all (2010) Said that More than billion people around the world are using Facebook and share their knowledge and get information. In this research, researchers analyzed that use of Facebook intended social act and this research revealed social influence, social existence.

Sandra Forsythe, et al (2013) investigated in their researches that nowadays for the commercial interaction businessmen are using Facebook and Twitter. The researcher said that for the different companies have fashion pages on Facebook and Twitter to apparel the consumers. The researcher further disclosed that they are also advertising their products through social media such as Facebook. The researcher stated that the companies are using Facebook and Twitter for this purpose as the consumers are using it for fashion information.

This study further revealed that fashion companies are using social media as a source of information for the consumers as it is a very effective and motivational source for them.

The researcher collected data from 472 through structural equation modelling (SEM). The results showed that fashion product involvement had a positive influence and a useful source of fashion companies’ information.

Hemant C.Sashittal, Rajendran Sriramachandramurthy and Monica Hodis(2012) revealed in their study that Facebook is an emerging source for the advertisement and political campaigns all over the world. The results of the study disclosed that students are using Facebook for the advertisement and political campaigns as well as for study the political party and political leader history. It was also explored that students between 18- to 25-year-old they are studying the leaders and political history and personal information through Facebook and other social media.   

Allen, Claire (2009) explored in this study to find out the Facebook fashion effects and role for the adoption of students. It is also investigated to search out the student's trends of fashion through Facebook.  In this article, he examined the choice of online material of the students and its influence on the lifestyle of them.

 

Theoretical Framework

Cultivation theory was developed by Garbnerand Larry Gross in 1967, which was focused on T.V. viewers.  The theorists recommended that T.V. develops viewer’s perception about the real world. Television is a medium of socialization as well as highlighting different issues. Television is also contributing its major role in changing the behavior of viewers.

Cohen, J, Weimann. (2000) the early research, based on cultivation theory, found that television affects the perception of viewers. The researcher further said that television also has an outstanding consequence in American in the attitude and behavior changes of its viewers.

Griffin. E (2012)said that Gerbner assumed that television as a medium of communication makes different communities together into a common environment, and this medium is socializing people into the same roles and attitudes. 

W. James (2014) Said that Gerber’s Research revealed that television has a lot of effects on heavy television viewers, especially when they exposed to the specific messages. According to James people are taking different meaning from the television messages in their real life.

Beullens, Roe & Vanden. Bulck (2011) conducted another study, which was aimed to analyze the effect of television news on people’s attitude, particularly on the attitude of young people having less than 20 years of age. In this study, researchers conducted a survey among 426 youths aged 17-19 to analyze the driving behaviour. Results showed that action movie viewing led to a positive change in the behaviour of young people rather than television news viewing.

 

Facebook and Cultivation Theory

JT Tsay, L Dabbish and J Herbsleb (2012) said that heavy viewers of television cultivate their perception, attitudes, thoughts, feelings and behavior from the real world. As at the recent time, Facebook is considering as a persuasive technology so it can cultivate the perception of users as well. Most users of Facebook access to their accounts to have contact with their social media friend, besides getting information about their surroundings. They are likely to perceive the real world same to the online community. Facebook can change the user’s thoughts and behaviours. Besides, after getting personal information, the behaviors of users can be changed about their real world.

Personal information on Social networking changes the perception of heavy user’s thinking in the real world. This makes changes in the attitude and behavior of the user.

According to Schlenker and Wowra (2003), the public can communicate on Facebook, which changes their attitudes and thinking. On Facebook public give comments on every issue, expression display by other users on Facebook.

Debatin et al, (2009) conducted a study to evaluate the impact of Facebook on users, which showed that due to the usage of Facebook people always remain in touch with friends and getting aware of their activities. The study further found that Facebook users get a lot of personal information, which could cultivate the perception of users in the offline world.

 

Relevancy of Theory to the Current Study

Cultivation theory is one of the applicable theory for this research to know how Facebook cultivates user’s perception towards information, culture, education and fashion information. This theory would be helpful to evaluate the uses of Facebook and its influence on students.

Students who use Facebook for more time will be fallen prey of the impact of this new media as heavy users of Facebook show a keen interest in fashion and adopt new fashion styles which they see on Facebook.

 Fashion companies influence Facebook users to motivate them toward new fashion and trends. They enjoy all-new styles and adopt different styles. People go to pick out and keep in mind that information in which they are interested. So the debate on that information with friends and family members also. Many students are spending more time on Facebook for political information, cultural information, fashion, education and entertainment.

Mostly Students are using Facebook excessively and adopt other culture because Facebook ultimately cultivated their perception. Some users get educational benefits from Facebook. They use Facebook for the purpose to remain in touch with their friends and teachers so that to discuss different topics of their mutual interests. 

 

Research Methodology

Irny, S.I. and Rose, A.A. (2005) defined that research methodology is the efficient, hypothetical procedure in the ground of study. It includes a hypothetical study related to knowledge. Usually, it involves concepts such as quantitative or qualitative methods. A methodology deals theoretical supporting for understanding which method, set of methods, and applied to a specific study, such as to calculating data. This research is based on the quantitative methodology, as the researcher quantified the data to measure the variables for the solution of the problem, while the survey method was adopted for data collection. The University of Swat was the population of this research. Students were randomly selected from different departments, and a questionnaire was distributed among the students, including male and female of different departments. The researcher collected data from 250 students of the different department of Swat University, 208 respondents return their questionnaires which response rate was 83%.    

 

Table.1 Gender and status wise distribution of the respondents

Variables

F

%

Variables

F

%

Variables

F

%

Male

145

70

Single

164

80

BS

135

64.9

Female

63

30

Married

44

20

MA

73

35.9

Total

208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 1. Shows the gender and status wise distribution of the respondents that 70% of them were male, while 30% were female students who responded to the questionnaire. On the other hand, 80% were single, whereas 20% were married students. The table also illustrates the education of the respondents that 64.9% of them B.S. students and 35.9% were Master students. 

 

Table 2. Age-wise distribution of the respondents

Variables

F

%

18-25

194

93.0

26-30

11

5.0

Above

3

2.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 2 shows the age-wise distribution of the respondents. 93% of them aged 18 to 25 years old while 5% of the respondents aged 26 to30 years old and 2% of them above than 30 years.

 

Table 3. Access to Facebook and spending timing distribution

Variables

F

%

Variables

F

%

PC

5

2.4

Less than hour

86

41.3

Laptop

90

43.3

1-2

64

30.8

Mobile

106

51.0

3-4

32

15.4

Others

7

3.4

More than 4 hours

26

12.5

Total

208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 3 shows that 2.4% respondents were using Personal Computer (Desktop) for Facebook, and 43.3% were using Laptop, 51% respondents were using Mobile, and 3.4% were using Facebook through other devices.   The table also exemplifies that while the rest 41.3% were using Facebook less than one hour, 30.8% were using 1 to 2 hours and 15.4% were using 3 to 4 hours and 12.5% of them were using more than 4 hours in a day.

Figure 1: Respondent’s distribution according to their reason of the use of Facebook

In the above Figure 1. Shows the reason for Facebook using. Majority of 44% respondents were using Facebook for information and opinion, while 27% respondents replied that they were using Facebook to keep in touch with family and friends. This Figure also demonstrates that 21% respondents were using Facebook for education, and 8% were using for fashion information.

Figure 2: Respondent's distribution according to exposure to information through Facebook

Figure 2. Shows that 113 respondents were using Facebook for educational information, 41 for political information and 27 respondents replied that they were using for cultural and fashion information.

Figure 3: Respondent’s exposure to education through Facebook

The above figure 3. Shows that 48% respondents showed agreement about their exposure to educational information on Facebook, 21% disagreed, and 16% that they were strongly disagreed and 15% were strongly agreed for their exposure to Facebook for educational information. 

 

Table 4. Distribution of the respondents according to their exposure and effects of educational information

Variable

F

%

Variable

F

%

Related to my subject

102

49.0

Always

53

25.5

Most influential

51

24.5

To some extend

112

53.8

Mostly posted

42

20.2

Never

27

13.0

Others

13

6.3

don't know

16

7.7

Total

        208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 4. Illustrates the distribution of respondents according to their exposure to educational information that 49% respondents said that they were using Facebook for education because it related to their subject, 24.5% said that it is most influential, 20.2 replied that they were affected because it was mostly posted and 6.3% answered that they don’t have knowledge about educational information on Facebook.

 The table also shows the effects of educational information on respondents.25.5% answered that they were always effected,53.8% said up to some extent they were effected,13% respondents answered never effected and 7.7% replied don’t know.

Figure 4: Respondent’s opinion regarding Facebook as a good site for educational information

Figure 4. Shows that the highest numbers of respondents 129 were agreed that Facebook is a good site for educational information, 39 respondents were strongly agreed while 26 respondents replied that they disagreed and 14 were strongly disagreed with the notion.

Figure 5: Respondent’s use of Facebook for political information

 

In the above Figure 5 that 48% respondents who agreed that they were using Facebook for political information. Whereas 26% disagreed, and 15% respondents were strongly agreed that only 11% of the respondents replied that they strongly disagree to the notion.

 

Table 5. Distribution of the respondents according to their exposure and effects of political information

Variable

F

%

Variable

F

%

Interested

88

42.3

Always

32

15.4

most Influential

21

10.1

To some extend

99

47.6

mostly posted

34

16.3

Never

56

26.9

Don't know

65

31.3

don't know

21

10.1

Total

208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 5 reveals that 42.3% respondents said that they were interested in political information, 10.1% replied that political information was most influential, 16.3% answered that they were exposed to political information because it was mostly posted and 31.3% said that they don’t know about it. On the other hand, the above table also shows the effects of political information on respondents.15.4% respondents answered that they were always effected by political information, 47.6% said that they were affected up to some extent, 26.9% replied that they were never affected and 10.1% answered don’t know.

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Figure 6: Respondent’s opinion regarding Facebook as good site for political information

 

Figure 6 shows that 55% respondents were agreed that Facebook was a good site for political information and 24% respondents showed disagreement. The above Fig also shows that 14% respondents were strongly agreed and 7% were strongly disagreed to the notion.

Figure 7: Respondent’s use of Facebook for cultural information

 

Figure 5.8 indicates that 124 respondents replied that they were using Facebook for cultural information; on the other hand, 84 respondents were not using it for cultural information.

 

Table 6. Distribution of the respondents according to their exposure and effects of cultural information

 Variable

F

%

Variable

F

%

Related to my beliefs

85

40.9

Always

48

23.1

Most influential

52

24.0

To some extend

105

50.5

Motley posted

45

21.6

Never

37

17.8

Others

26

12.5

don't know

18

8.7

Total

208

100.0

Total

208

100.0

 

Table 6 demonstrates the distribution of the respondents according to their exposure and also the effects of cultural information. About 40.9% replied that this information was related to their beliefs, 24% said that it was most influential, 21.6% said that it was mostly posted and 12.5% answered other reason. The table also shows the affected of cultural information on respondents.23.1% replied that they were always affected, 50.5% said that they were affected up to some extent, 17.8% answered that they were never affected by this information and 8.7% answered don’t know.

Figure 8: Respondent’s opinion regarding Facebook as a good site for cultural information

 

The figure 8 indicates that 127 respondents who agreed that Facebook is a good site for cultural information, 33 respondents were strongly agreed, 39 respondents disagreed, and 9% were strongly disagreed. The figure reveals that the respondents who agreed that Facebook is a good site for cultural information are high in numbers.

 

Discussion

This research aimed to find out the educational, political, Cultural and fashion influences on Students for this purpose researcher distributed Questionnaires randomly among the students of the University of Swat. 70% of them were male, and 30% were Female. Single Students were 80% and married were 44%. Students ages were 18 to 30.

This research also showed the education level of the students. 65.9% of them were B.S. students, and 35.9% were Master students. Students were used different devices 51% students replied that they were using Facebook on Mobile, 43.3% were using through a laptop, 3.4% students said that they were using Facebook by Tablet and 2.4% students were using Facebook on P.C.

This research revealed that 141 number of students have more than 30 contacts, 31 Students have 21 to 30 friends, 16 have 11 to 20 have friends, and 20 have less than 10 out of 208 friends and contacts on Facebook.

This study also showed the reason for Facebook using. 44% Students pointed out that they were using Facebook for information and opinion, 27% respondents replied that they were using Facebook to keep in touch with family and friends, 21% Students were using Facebook for education purposes, and 8% were using for fashion information.

The first objective of the research was explored “To know how many time students use Facebook” the results of the study revealed that 41.3% Students used Facebook less than one hour on a daily base. It is justified that most of the students are using Facebook.

The second objective of the research was “To find out the educational influence of Facebook on students” was confirmed by the study that 54% respondents were using Facebook for educational information, while on the other dependent query 48% respondents agreed about exposure to educational information of Facebook. On the supplementary question related to influence 49% respondents said that they use Facebook for educational purposes because it was related to their subject, whereas the study also showed that 53.8% students replied that educational information on Facebook affected to some extent. The study also justified that 62% of the respondents agreed that Facebook is a good site for educational information.

“To find out for what type of information student use Facebook” was also the objective of the study which is confirmed that 54% respondents were using Facebook for educational information as compare to political, cultural and fashion information.

The last objective of the study was“To search out fashion and cultural influence of Facebook on students” was also approved that 59% respondents replied that they were using Facebook for cultural information. To other question related to influence among them, 40.9% said that they use Facebook as they exposed to culture information because it was related to their beliefs. While 61% respondents agreed that Facebook is a good site for cultural information and 50.5% students revealed that cultural information affected them to some extent. Majority of respondents 63% replied that they were not using Facebook for fashion information.51% respondents were agreed that Facebook is a good site of fashion information.

The hypotheses of the study were “Whether students are using more Facebook for educational purposes than political information” approved that 54% of the students were using Facebook for the educational information, while 19% of them were using for political information. It is approved that students are using for educational purposes as compared to political.

Hypotheses“ Fashion information is more influential for the students than cultural posted information” was also verified approved that 59% respondents replied that they were using Facebook for cultural information. To other question related to influence among them, 40.9% said that they use Facebook as they exposed to culture information because it was related to their beliefs. While 61% respondents agreed that Facebook is a good site for cultural information and 50.5% students revealed that cultural information affected them to some extent. Majority of respondents 63% replied that they were using Facebook for fashion information.51% respondents were agreed that Facebook is a good site of fashion information.

The last hypothesis of the study was“Students use Facebook for a long time, so it changes the opinion of the students” denied that 41.3% of the respondents were using Facebook less than one hour, 30.8% were using 1 to 2 hours and 15.4% were using 3 to 4 hours and 12.5% of them sued were suing more than 4 hours in a day.

 

Theory Justification

The current study proved the assumption of the Cultivation theory that most of the students were

used Facebook for educational, political, cultural and fashion as well as it bought positive changes among them. It showed that through the Facebook Students are adopting culture and fashion while getting political and educational information also from Facebook.  

 

Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to investigate the educational, political, and cultural and fashion influences on students because nowadays most of the Students are using Facebook so this study was conducted to evaluate that how the usage of Facebook influence the students’ thinking about politics, fashion and even their culture. Facebook, which is a component of social media, has changed human life. During the study, it is found that Facebook is an important tool for education and information as well.

It is concluded that a moderate ratio of the respondents exposed to Facebook. It is inferred that nowadays students are using Facebook fluently daily.

It is also summarized that most of the students in the university of Swat are using Facebook for educational purposes as they are exposing to educational contents and materials. It is concluded that most of the students are exposing to Facebook for fashion and cultural information.

The study proved that most of the students are going online educational information as compare to political information in their daily lives.

It is also summarized that students are more exposed to fashion information than cultural information through Facebook.               

 

Recommendations

Apart from the negative aspect of the usage of Facebook, there are a lot of merits of this social media networking as it keeps people connected and informed. So after conducting the study, the researcher suggests that the

·      Students should use Facebook with the basic aim to acquire knowledge and information.

·      Students should use Facebook for educational purposes

·      But it is also recommended to students to avoid unnecessary interaction with alien Facebook friends.

·      Like other social media networking sites Facebook is also playing a vital role to highlight different issues being faced by the society, and no doubt it can play an important role in resolving these issues, but sometimes its excessive usage leaves a severe impact on users, particularly on students. So it is suggested to students to keep care of their precious time while they use Facebook.

·      Apart from the users of Facebook, this new media has a lot of potential for the researchers also. No doubt when more researches will be conducted in this field the more merits and demerits of the social media will be evaluated, which will be helpful for the users to use the social media for positive purposes.


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