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The Impact of Watching Television Sports Channels in Promotion of Sports Activities among the Students of University of Sargodha

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Abstract

This study analyzes the impact of watching television sports channels on the promotion of sports activities among the students of the University of Sargodha. The aim of the study is to explore the impact of sports channels on students. “Previous researches are used to set up the concepts of the present study. In this research, a survey technique is used to collect the data. The population of the study consists of male and female students of the University of Sargodha. In this research, the Stratified and Purposive sampling technique is used, through which specification characteristics of the respondent’s demographics. The study explores the impact of sports channels in the view of Uses and Gratification Theory. The data for this study is collected through the use of a well-designed questionnaire.  Chi-square test and other statistical tests like ANOVA and t-Test are applied to test the hypothesis. The finding shows that more the exposure to TV sports channels more the information level of students of the University of Sargodha

 

Key Words 

Sports Channels, Stratified and Purposive Sampling, Chi-Square, ANOVA, T-             Test

 

Introduction

In today’s world, media has become almost as necessary as food and clothing. It is true that the media is playing an exceptional role in strengthening the social order. Its duty to inform, educate and entertain the people (Roa and Kumar, 2017). It also helps us to know the current situation around the globe. The media has a strong social and cultural impact on the social system. Because of its inherent capacity to reach at large the members of the public, it is widely used to convey a message to build opinion and awareness (Brulle, 2012). The media has the power of educating people, the good and the bad

Definitions of media7 are likely to make people think of vastly different and distinct occupations, people, organizations, texts and artefacts. The word media has come to mean a variety of things, in a similar fashion to sport, but in far greater complexity and breadth. According to Briggs and Rayle (2005), ancient Greeks and Romans considered the study of oral and written communication important, as did scholars during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It was not until the 1920s, however, that people referred to the concept of ‘the media’. In contemporary usage, the term media typically applies to two separate yet related elements. First, media refers to the means of mass communication, such as television, radio, newspapers or the internet. Importantly, within one form, such as television, there are many different types, such as commercial, public, independent and community (Jenkins et al., 2018). Furthermore, these types also have various levels. For example, a commercial media organization might own national television networks through to local stations that service a city or town. Second, media refers to those people employed within an organization such as a television station or newspaper, such as journalists and editors. It is important to note that these two definitions span a variety of meanings that are context-specific. In reference to broadcasting regulation, the media might be interpreted as the entire industry, which in turn might be national or global  (Getz and Page, 2016).

 

Sports

Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels (Wood et at., 2017).

 

Importance of Sports

Sports play a vital role in the personality development of youth. It makes them physically healthy, active and mentally alerts, and also reduces their risk for health problems. It enables them to live in a healthy and competitive environment. It develops in them team-work, self-discipline, sportsmanship, leadership and socialization (Corbin and Masurier, 2012). Sports channels are playing a vital role in the promotion of sports. Especially in youth, sports activities are being adopted by watching sports channels. During the world cup of different sports, a game phobia can be seen in youth. There has also been a very rapidly growing quantity of academic writing. Many publications concerned with sport in general also include chapters focusing on mediated sport; a reflection on the fact that sport and the media have become associated to such an extent that it is often difficult to discuss sport in modern society without acknowledging its relationship with the media (Pedersen et al., 2020). Indeed, in recent years the study of media sport has become a central theme within the sociology of sport and other books on sport generally also address the media. As Schaffer and Smith suggested that ‘blur the boundaries between sports and other forms of popular culture – they often engage with the media (Postma et al., 2017).

Further evidence of spectators’ increasing interest in sports can be measured in media time allotted to sports programming. In 1960, the three major networks broadcast a total of 300 hours of sports; by 1988, that figure rose to over 1800 (Madrigal, 1995). “This 500 percent increase is even more dramatic when one considers that it does not include the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN), which broadcasts sports programming 24 hours a day…” (Madrigal, 1995, 206). And lastly, society’s addiction to sports is even illustrated through the number of money advertisers are willing to spend during national sporting events. In 2004, a 30-second time slot aired during the Super Bowl cost an advertiser a record $2.4 million (Attner, 2004), proving that corporations such as Pepsi Cola, Bud Light, and McDonald's trust the world is watching.

 

Objectives of the study                               

In the view of the overall project, the objective of the study includes, in broad.

·         To find out the role of sports channels in the promotion of games.

·         To obtain the extent of the interest of university students in watching television sports channels.

·         To investigate the watching habits of sports channels on university students.

·         To dig out the gratification level of students of the University of Sargodha with sports channels.

·         To identify the trends and development of Sports activities in the students of the University of Sargodha.

 

Literature7Review

Literature examination is considered to be a significant step for a researcher as it enables him to analyze the related literature from diverse sources, e.g. internet and major books. It is required for the achievement of the study to have an organized and rational review of the literature. Here is an attempt to have a literature examination on The Impact of Watching Television Sports Channels in the Promotion of Sports Activities among the Students of the University of Sargodha. Underneath is the evaluation of related studies that were conducted in different countries.

According to Crabb and Goldstein (1991), sports have played an important part in Western civilization. Sport can refer to any diverting activity. However, even in early societies, such as that of the Egyptians, participation in sports was defined mainly as the playing of competitive games. People's relationship to sports was broken into two distinct roles: players and spectators. Over the history of civilization, sports have acted as a source of community pride, an outlet for aggression, and a way to teach some of the values important to society. In the early 1900s, a new dimension was added to the role of sports spectatorship - mass communication. The broadcasting of sports over the radio in 1921 increased the audience size, in both geographic and social distribution, as well as created the opportunity for "simultaneity of experience (Crabb & Goldstein, 1991, p. 360). In 1936, mass communication and sports became further integrated when the Berlin Olympic Games were televised in the Berlin locale. Soon thereafter, the 19 United States began televising sports, creating a nationwide, and later a worldwide, market for major and minor sportst1 (p. 360).

Sports play an integral part of American culture. With over 95% of American homes owning at least one television (Duncan & Brummett, 1989), it is no surprise that the role of televised sports is continuing to grow in importance in our society. Recent studies have indicated that over 75% of the population is at least "somewhat interested in watching televised sporting events (Gantz & Wenner, 1991, p. 236). However, "despite its enormous social and economic impact, very little systematic analysis had been made of sports spectators (Jackson, 1988, p. 314). This is an uprising, especially when one considers that throughout history, "humankind's involvement with sport has been overwhelmingly characterized by spectatorship rather than actual athletic participation (Loy, 1981, p. 262). There is an ongoing argument about whether watching televised sports is better than attending the actual competition. Zillmann, Sapolsky, and Bryant (1979) argue that television allows millions of people to benefit from the rewards associated with spectating (i.e., the thrill of victory, suspense, etc.). Duncan and Brummett (1989) support this claim and add to it by suggesting that "rapid cuts from different vantage points allow the television spectator to follow the action with few breaks, creating a sense of continuity that does not exist when one is actually sitting in an arena" (p. 202). Clearly, television and sports are integrated into our society, with many sports being heavily reliant on television revenues in order to survive both professional and amateur sports have changed their rules in order to accommodate television programming, and the amount of televised sports continues to grow with new additions such as all-sport cable channels and extended sports schedules.

With the expansion of sports viewing opportunities comes the growth of sports audiences. Sports audiences may be different from the audiences of non-sports programming, for the activities in which they engage are distinctly different (Gantz, 1981). These differences lie in the fact that sporting events are "one of the few 'live programs left on television (Duncan & Brummett, p. 203). Thus making televised sporting events different from regular television programming. According to Loy, McPherson, and Kenyon (1978), average sports spectators are middle class, urban-dwelling males under the age of thirty who are relatively highly educated (p. 312). These viewers watch sports programming for a number of reasons, the first of which is related to the suspense that is linked to the uncertainty of the game's outcome. At the beginning of a sporting event, no one, not the players, the coaches, the referees, nor the announcers, know for certain exactly how the game will end. This element of uncertainty is one of the "chief bases of fun found within sports (Loy, p. 265). The end results are not always favorable, and the suspense during the game is considered real. This suspense creates an atmosphere that is exciting and in which the spectator can become emotionally involved (Duncan & Brummett, p. 201). Another reason viewers watch televised sport is that it provides fantasy and escape function. These "fans can vicariously knowledge the struggles and successes of the athletes. Being a fan fulfils the requirements of sharing, feeling, and belonging. It gives an acceptable outlet for exhibiting emotions and thoughts (Gantz, 1981, p. 264).  According to Gantz and Wenner (1991), sports spectators also use televised sports "to get psyched up," to calm down and relax,” If to let off steam, “It to have something to do with friends," "as an opportunity to have a drink," and "to have something to talk about (p. 239). These uses of televised sports, while consistent across different types of sports programming, vary greatly from the uses of regular television viewing, as do the activities in which sports spectators engage during viewing.

It may be concluded here after examining different studies that sports play an integral part in society, and it has become the recognition of a healthy nation too on the globe. According to the studies, the majority of the population, especially the youth, take more interest in watching sports events on Television 24/7. It is also found that the information level of the audience is also increased, and sports channels persuade the youth too to learn about games and techniques used in sports. The relationship between media and sports also established a sports’ viewing culture not only in the region but also globally.

 

Theoretical Framework

This study is planned to analyze the “impact of watching TV sports channels in promotion of sports activities among the students of the University of Sargodha. The main focus of the study is to discover the impact of sports TV on University students for the promotion of sports activities. The Uses and Gratifications Theory argues that audiences use media to meet their needs and fulfil their personal gratification (Lee, 2009, p. 16).  According to Blumler and Katz, as cited in Wang et al. (2016), this theory emphasizes the active role of the audience in making choices and being goal-directed (p. 2).  An individual’s goals and priorities drive what information is consumed and by what means he or she uses to consume that information.  According to Rubin (as cited in Liu, 2010), audiences can be divided into ritualized and instrumental audiences.  A ritualized audience focuses on the medium itself rather than the content.  The ritualized audience is more habitual in their actions.  In comparison, an instrumental audience, who is goal-oriented, selects the media based on their content. According to Sicilia et al. (2016), the gratification of individual needs in a virtual community depends on the perceived value of being a member (p. 17).  Virtual communities offer functional, social, and entertainment values.  The functional values allude to an individual’s need to give and seek information and advice.  Social values cover friendship and social enhancement.  Finally, entertainment values are fun and relaxation from an individual’s interaction with others. The theory is useful because it illustrates that people gravitate to sports media to satisfy the needs they have. Sports entities must embrace this theory, recognizing the public is pursuing quality content that satisfies particular needs they have through strategic messaging. Sports communication entities must understand the public’s search for information and frame their messages strategically to stand out amongst other content.

 

Hypotheses

·         More exposure to TV sports channels more the information level of UOS students.

·         It is more likely that the students take an interest in more than one sports channel for getting information about sports.

·         It is more likely that live coverage is more watched than recorded on sports channels by students.

·         It is more likely that sports channels are influential for students to adopt sports activities.

 

Methodology

The nature of the study, the survey research method was used to study the extent of the effects of sports television channels on university students. This study was launched to explore the effects of sports channels on university students. Keeping in view of the nature of the study, survey research was considered as an appropriate method for analyzing the effects of the sports television channels. The population of this study will be the students of the university of Sargodha from different departments. The purpose of the study is to explore the consumption habits of university students to the sports television channels contents and its correlation with their adoption level. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which the sample is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were applied through a mix-method to collect the data from the respondents. In this research, a Stratified and purposive sampling technique is used by the researcher through which specification characteristics of the respondent’s demographics.

 

Findings

With the invention of sports channels, people have a lot of dependency on them for a variety of purposes. For the almost last one-decade, several private sports channels are not only launched, but they are also in a race of cut-throat-competition. These channels are providing awareness and show a variety of programs, and the people in one way or the other consume the information for getting knowledge about different sports. The results, however, revealed a significant difference between the viewers very often and sometimes watching habits. The overall (70.6%) and the viewers both the gender that is male (41.6%) and female (29.1%) and both the Upto graduation  (38.1%) and the Above graduation (32.5%) viewers significantly very often expose to private sports channels as compared to their cross categories, i.e., sometimes and never.

 

Table 1. Watching Sports Channels

Gender

Class

Discipline

Overall

Male

Female

Up to Graduation

Above Graduation

Natural Sciences

Social Sciences

PTV Sports

Very Frequently

57.8

32.8

25.0

26.9

30.9

24.4

33.4

Somewhat

30.3

12.8

17.5

16.6

13.8

19.1

11.3

Never

11.9

4.4

7.5

6.6

5.3

6.6

5.3

Geo Super

Very Frequently

70.6

41.6

29.1

38.1

32.5

32.2

38.4

Somewhat

39.7

19.7

20.0

19.7

20.0

21.6

18.1

Never

16.6

5.9

10.6

6.6

10.0

9.4

7.2

Ten Sports

Very Frequently

38.1

23.1

15.0

16.9

21.3

18.1

20.0

Somewhat

40.0

20.0

20.0

23.4

16.6

19.1

20.9

Never

21.9

6.9

15.0

9.7

12.2

12.8

9.1

Star Sports

Very Frequently

27.2

18.1

9.1

13.1

14.1

9.4

17.8

Somewhat

42.2

23.4

18.8

22.8

19.4

22.5

19.7

Never

30.6

8.4

22.2

14.1

16.6

18.1

12.5

 

The overall findings of the study Table 1.1 reveal that the viewers significantly spend more than 2 hours watching Geo super Star sports (12.2%) with a minor difference between Ten sports (11.1 %) and Ten sports (10.0%). The comparison of the low and heavy time consumption pattern of time spending on sports channels reveals that low time spending viewers significantly watch Star Sports. The viewers who consumed heavy time watching on sports channels are significantly exposed to Geo super. Reasons behind their heavy watching habit are that they like Geo Super more because of anchor, story, and presentation style, latest sports event national and international. 

 

Table 2. Time Spending

 

PTV Sports

Geo Super

Ten Sports

Star Sports

30 min

41.9

44.7

48.4

55.0

1 hour

24.1

25.9

22.2

15.1

1.30 hour

11.3

19.7

16.3

11.9

2 hours

6.6

12.2

10.0

11.1

more than 2 hours

7.8

5.9

3.1

6.9

 

Table 3 Purpose to Watch Sport Channels

One of the study’s most focal area is to explore viewers show their interest in watching sports channels. The results of table 1.3 illustrate very frequently the difference between the viewers’ extent to get entertain (31.6 %) from all the selected sports channels. Results show that viewers used sports channels for information on sports channels and also in sports activities (29.4%). The results reveal little difference between the education and passing time extent of purpose taken in sports channels but not at a significant level. It is also evident from the overall findings that most of the viewers perceive the sports channels as entertainment purpose (55.7%) with the comparison information (51.0%) and fallow with (40.6%) and for the killing time (40.6 %).

 

Information

Education

Entertainment

For Time Killing

Very Frequently

29.4

17.2

31.6

17.8

Frequently

31.6

33.4

24.1

22.8

Somewhat

20.3

22.5

26.3

26.3

Rarely

11.3

17.5

13.4

21.9

Not at all

7.5

9.4

4.7

11.3

 

Table 4 Getting Information from Sports Channels

This Chi-square test shows the results that respondents get information about sports more than one TV sports channel significantly. It proves the hypothesis “It is more likely that the students take an interest in more than one sports channel for getting information about sports” as true.

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

PTV Sports

Pearson Chi-Square

4.270a

4

.022

Geo Super

Pearson Chi-Square

4.750a

4

.078

Ten Sports

Pearson Chi-Square

21.120a

4

.320

Star Sports

Pearson Chi-Square

15.170a

4

.004

 

Table 5 Preference to Watch Types of Transmission

The t-test shows that respondents prefer to watch live coverage of sports as compare to recorded significantly. This result also supports the hypothesis, “It is more likely that live coverage is more watched than recorded at sports channels by students”.

 

Independent Samples Test

 

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

 

 

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

 

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

Lower

Upper

Live coverage of sports events by sports channels

Equal variances assumed

.095

.038

-.052

318

.958

-.006

.120

-.242

.230

Equal variances not assumed

-.052

317.999

.958

-.006

.120

-.242

.230

Recorded coverage of sports events by sports channels

Equal variances assumed

.044

.834

-1.369

318

.172

-.188

.137

-.457

.082

Equal variances not assumed

-1.369

317.973

.172

-.188

.137

-.457

.082

 

Table 6 Increase in the Information Level of Viewers

This statistical result shows that the information level of viewers is increased significantly who watch the sports channel. It also supports the hypothesis, “More the exposure to TV sports channels, more the information level of students of the University of Sargodha”.

 

Independent Samples t-Test

 Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

 

 

 

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

 

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

Lower

Upper

Increase the information level of viewers

Equal variances assumed

.350

.055

1.162

318

.246

.144

.124

-.100

.387

 

 

Table 7 Influenced to Adopt the Sports

ANOVA test shows the significant values regarding sports to adopt under the influence of sports channels. The empirical results also strengthen the hypothesis “It is more likely that sports channels are influential for students to adopt sports activities”.

 

 

ANOVA

 

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Sports channels influence to adopt the Cricket sports

Between Groups

8.631

1

8.631

5.762

0.017

 

Within Groups

474.837

317

1.498

 

Total

483.467

318

Sports channels influence to adopt Football sports

Between Groups

8.306

1

8.306

5.517

0.019

 

Within Groups

477.218

317

1.505

 

Total

485.524

318

Sports channels influence to adopt the Hockey sports

Between Groups

0.399

1

0.399

0.367

0.545

 

Within Groups

344.642

317

1.087

 

Total

345.041

318

Sports channels influence to adopt Tennis sports

Between Groups

6.646

1

6.646

5.055

0.025

 

Within Groups

416.74

317

1.315

 

Total

423.386

318

Sports channels influence to adopt the Athletics sports

Between Groups

9.082

1

9.082

7.25

0.007

 

Within Groups

397.087

317

1.253

 

Total

406.169

318

Sports channels influence to adopt the Wrestling sports

Between Groups

5.185

1

5.185

3.106

0.079

 

Within Groups

529.253

317

1.67

 

Total

534.439

318

Sports channels influence to adopt the Wrestling sports

Between Groups

9.042

1

9.042

7.326

0.007

 

Within Groups

391.259

317

1.234

 

Total

400.301

318

 

Discussion

This is evident from the findings of the study. The results, however, revealed a significant difference between the viewers very often and sometimes watching habits. The overall (70.6%) and the viewers both the gender that is male (41.6%) and female (29.1%) and both the Upto graduation (38.1%) and the Above graduation (32.5%) viewers significantly very often expose to private sports channels as compared to their cross categories, i.e., sometimes and never. The overall findings of the study that the viewers significantly spend more than 2 hours on watching Geo superstar sports (12.2%) with the miner difference ten sports (11.1 %) and Ten sports (10.0%). The comparison of the low and heavy time consumption pattern of time spending on sports channels reveals that low time spending viewers significantly watch Star Sports. The viewers who consumed heavy time watching on sports channels are significantly exposed to Geo super. Reasons behind their heavy watching habit are that they like Geo Super more because of anchor, story, and presentation style, latest sports event national and international.

One of the study’s most focal areas is to explore the viewer’s showing their interest in watching sports channels. The result is very frequently the difference between the viewers’ extent to get entertain (31.6 %) from all the selected sports channels. Results show that viewers used sports channels for information on sports channels and also in sports activities (29.4%). The results reveal little difference between the education and passing time extent of purpose taken in sports channels but7not at7significant7level. It7is also7evident from7the overall7findings that most7of the7viewers perceive7the sports7channels as entertainment purpose (55.7%) with the comparison information (51.0%), and fallow with (40.6%) and for the killing time (40.6 %).

The Chi-square test used in question 4 shows the results that respondents get information about sports more than one TV sports channel significantly. It proves the hypothesis“It is more likely that the students take an interest in more than one sports channel for getting information about sports” as true. Results regarding their likeness about the contents of sports channels programs reveal somewhat difference between the overall viewers. Results regarding their liking of cricket programs reveal that (59.1%) viewers very significantly and liking the football’s content (23.1%) selected sports channels as compared to the Hockey (12.8%) and Tennis (11.9%) and Athletics (8.8%). Liking Wrestling (8.4%) and other game liking percentage are (9.4).

The result shows that (59%) of respondents pay very much attention to world cups and (44 %) pay very much attention to international sports events. Similarly, the table shows (21%) of respondents pay very much attention to national events and (24 %) pay very much attention to regional sports events. T-test applied in question 7 shows that respondents prefer to watch live coverage of sports as compare to recorded significantly. This result also supports the hypothesis, “It is more likely that live coverage is more watched than recorded at sports channels by students”. Study shows (39%) of respondents get very much information from the newspaper and (34 %) get very much information from internet sports events. Table shows (19%) of respondents get very much information from the magazine and (18 %) get very much information from interpersonal communication, and (17%) get very much information from the radio.

This statistical result shows that the information level of viewers is increased significantly who watch the sports channel. It also supports the hypothesis “More the exposure to TV sports channels more the information level of students of the University of Sargodha”.(41%) of respondents prefer to watch news channels and same value (23 %) respondents prefer to watch drama and film channels. Table shows (23 %) respondents prefer to watch music channels, and (17 %) respondents prefer to watch the documentary, and (16%) respondents prefer to watch lifestyle channels. According to the study (38%) of respondents get satisfaction from PTV sports, and (28 %) of respondents get satisfaction from Geo sports. Similarly, the table shows (18%) of respondents get satisfaction from Ten sports and (16 %) of respondents get satisfaction from Star sports.

As table 5.12 shows that (36%) of respondents pay very much attention to the game, and (27 %) pay very much attention to players. Similarly, the table shows the same (20%) of respondents pay very much attention to game technique and sports quiz. (19 %) to commentary, (17%) to game rules and (11%) pay very much attention to spectators and advertisements. ANOVA test shows in question no.13 that the significant values regarding sports to adopt under the influence of sports channels. The empirical results also strengthen the hypothesis “It is more likely that sports channels are influential for students to adopt sports activities”. Table 5.14 shows that (32%) of respondents think that sports channels are much influential for the adoption of sports activities. (30%) think very much influence and (26%) think that influence is somewhat. (10%) rarely says influence, and according to (2.2%), sports channels don’t influence the adoption of sports.

 

Conclusion

This study was designed to explore the impacts of the most popular sports channels (PTV Sports, Geo Super, Ten Sports, Star Sports) on the male and female students of the University of Sargodha. With the invention of sports channels, people have a lot of dependency on them for a variety of purposes. For the almost last one-decade, several private sports channels are not only launched, but they are also in a race of cut-throat-competition. These channels are providing awareness and show a variety of programs, and the people in one way or the other consume the information for getting knowledge about different sports. That is why these sports channels have gained immense popularity among the viewers. The data for this study is collected through the use of a well-designed questionnaire.  Chi-square test and other statistical tests like ANOVA and t-Test are applied to test the hypothesis. The finding shows that more the exposure to TV sports channels more the information level of students of the University of Sargodha. And it is also established that viewers watch more than one channel to seek information about sports

 

 


 


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